Grid cells’ role in human imagination revealed

first_imgEmail LinkedIn Share Share on Facebook Evidence of grid cell activity has been seen in healthy volunteers asked to imagine moving through an environment in new UCL (University College London) research funded by the Medical Research Council and Wellcome Trust.The study, published in Current Biology, used fMRI scans to detect brain activity consistent with grid cell activity in the entorhinal cortex, an important ‘hub’ for navigation and memory.The entorhinal cortex is one of the first areas affected by Alzheimer’s disease, so the latest research could help to explain why people with Alzheimer’s can have problems imagining as well as remembering things.center_img Pinterest Share on Twitter Grid cells are brain cells that act as an internal coordinate system, firing at a series of locations that form a hexagonal grid across our environment as we move around it. The latest research provides the first evidence that these cells are also used when we imagine navigating, not only for tracking past or present environments.“People with Alzheimer’s disease can find it difficult to visualise and remember scenes, and our new findings may help to explain why,” says senior author Professor Neil Burgess, Director of the UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience. “We previously developed a test called the Four Mountains Test, where participants have to hold in mind a mountainous landscape and then try to identify it from a line-up of four landscapes, one of which is the original shown at a different point of view. This test has recently been shown to correlate with the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. So our latest research suggests that difficulties with the task may be related to a loss of grid cells in the entorhinal cortex.”The study suggests that grid cells are involved in a broader range of cognitive process than previously thought.“It is particularly exciting to see the involvement of a specific type of neuron whilst people are simply imagining moving through an environment,” explains lead author Dr Aidan Horner, who conducted the study at the UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and is now at the University of York. “This suggests that grid cells may contribute to more than just spatial navigation and are involved more broadly in planning and imagining the future. It is particularly difficult to link work at the neuronal level with higher-order cognitive processes. It is therefore incredibly exciting to see evidence for grid cells in imagined navigation, bridging the gap between neurons and mental imagery.”last_img read more

Reaffirm commitment to brighter, better future – UN SG on UN Day

first_imgThe timeless values of the UN Charter must remain our guide.  Our shared duty is to “unite our strength” to serve “we the peoples”. To mark this anniversary, monuments and buildings across the world are being illuminated in UN blue.  As we shine a light on this milestone anniversary, let us reaffirm our commitment to a better and brighter future for all. This is the call of United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki Moon  in a message to mark United Nations Day and the 70th anniversary of the United Nations today. UN Day marks the anniversary of the entry into force in 1945 of the UN Charter. With the ratification of this founding document by the majority of its signatories, including the five permanent members of the Security Council, the United Nations officially came into being. UN Headquarters lit in UN blue (Photo via UN) 24 October has been celebrated as United Nations Day since 1948. In 1971, the United Nations General Assembly recommended that the day be observed by Member States as a public holiday. Among the activities to observe the Day are: UN Day Concert – 23 October, United Nations General Assembly HallA concert to celebrate and reflect on the work of the UN through the universal language of music, featuring Korean Traditional Music Orchestra, Lang Lang, world famous Harlem Gospel Choir, etc.‘Turn the World UN Blue’– 24 October, WorldwideIconic monuments, buildings, statues, bridges, and other landmarks across the world will be lit up blue to help unite global citizens and promote the message of peace, development and human rights.Art Installation “Enlightened Universe” – 24 October, Manhattan, New YorkRenowned artist, Cristobal Gabarron, will unveil his monument in New York’s Central Park. The monument is an interactive sculpture formed by a sphere and surrounded by a spiral of 70 figures – one for each of the 70 years since the UN was created.Visit the UN70 Website for detailed information about the upcoming activities in New York and around the world. message to mark United Nations Day Share this:PrintTwitterFacebookLinkedInLike this:Like Loading… UNGA – Statement by Trinidad and Tobago’s Foreign Minister Denis MosesMadam President, I am honoured to address this eminent congress of nations seized with advancing the international agenda towards the realisation of international peace, sustainable development and the well-being of all humankind. On behalf of the Government and people of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, extend congratulations to you…September 30, 2018In “Indepth”President Granger calls on UN to protect small statesGeorgetown, Guyana  – Small states risk being subjugated unless the international community can demonstrate the capability and commitment to provide an effective deterrent against domination by larger, stronger states. This was President David Granger’s main message during his address to world leaders at the United Nations (UN) General Assembly today.…September 29, 2015In “CARICOM”UN SG lauds CARICOM leadership on global issues  As the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and United Nations (UN) meet in New York, USA, to discuss how the international body can better support the Region’s strategic goals, UN Secretary-General, His Excellency António Guterres, has lauded CARICOM’s leadership on many pressing global issues. Speaking at the opening of the 9th…July 21, 2017In “Antigua & Barbuda”Share this on WhatsApplast_img read more

Valuers: gird yourselves for a tough 2007

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Weatheralls’ Glasgow office

first_imgTo access this article REGISTER NOWWould you like print copies, app and digital replica access too? SUBSCRIBE for as little as £5 per week. Would you like to read more?Register for free to finish this article.Sign up now for the following benefits:Four FREE articles of your choice per monthBreaking news, comment and analysis from industry experts as it happensChoose from our portfolio of email newsletterslast_img

Children’s Carnival

first_imgOn Sunday, Chabad of the Hamptons on Woods Lane in East Hampton and the Family of Rabbi Leibel Baumgarten invited everyone to Chabad House for their free Children’s Carnival. Families enjoyed face painting, a bean bag toss, mini-basketball, creative arts, cotton candy, a bouncy castle, and inflatable baseball. Sharelast_img

NuCO2 offers ‘compelling value proposition’ for Praxair Inc.

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Australia’s first hydrogen test station

first_imgGet instant access to must-read content today!To access hundreds of features, subscribe today! At a time when the world is forced to go digital more than ever before just to stay connected, discover the in-depth content our subscribers receive every month by subscribing to gasworld.Don’t just stay connected, stay at the forefront – join gasworld and become a subscriber to access all of our must-read content online from just $270. Subscribelast_img

Changes to public procurement regulations

first_imgTo continue enjoying Building.co.uk, sign up for free guest accessExisting subscriber? LOGIN Subscribe now for unlimited access Stay at the forefront of thought leadership with news and analysis from award-winning journalists. Enjoy company features, CEO interviews, architectural reviews, technical project know-how and the latest innovations.Limited access to building.co.ukBreaking industry news as it happensBreaking, daily and weekly e-newsletters Get your free guest access  SIGN UP TODAY Subscribe to Building today and you will benefit from:Unlimited access to all stories including expert analysis and comment from industry leadersOur league tables, cost models and economics dataOur online archive of over 10,000 articlesBuilding magazine digital editionsBuilding magazine print editionsPrinted/digital supplementsSubscribe now for unlimited access.View our subscription options and join our communitylast_img read more

Not guilty!

first_imgRudi Klein has certainly been fretting about non-contentious lawyers recently – his columns on 14 September and 23 October 2015 both end with the warning that: “Over the longer term [the bill ends up charged to] the industry’s clients.” Since the cost of the whole procurement process ends up “with the industry’s clients” this is hardly a revelation but, as one of those accused, do I need to re-examine the way we work? The thrust of the first column is that lawyers do not distinguish between procurement and contractual processes and that we focus only on maximum risk transfer and not collaboration and partnering. The supply chain – says Rudi – picks up the massive bill. It then descends to the micro level and recites a clause, presumably from a subcontract, which requires the subcontractor to co-ordinate its design with the designs of the employer’s consultants and the contractor.Even the dumbest lawyer understands that unreasonable risk transfer results in premium pricingSo, yes, now the supply chain is picking up the bill but I think there are some unwarranted accusations in here:Even lawyers understand that the choice of procurement route is different from the process of drafting a contract. Indeed, while lawyers may sometimes be involved in discussion of the procurement route, they rarely determine it and more usually the choice is made by the project team and/or client. My experience is that project managers/quantity surveyors are often very concerned about the need to maximise risk transfer and it is the clients themselves who push for more collaborative forms of procurement – construction management, management contracting, and so on – because they recognise that single stage design and build might maximise risk transfer but is inflexible, inimical to the highest quality of design, expensive and potentially unsuitable for many complex projects.I do not think all lawyers involved in drafting contracts are driven by the need to maximise risk transfer. Again, even the dumbest lawyer understands that unreasonable risk transfer results in premium pricing and, while 100% retention might be a whizz of an idea, it might not be commercially very sensible. But again a lot of pressure comes from the need to drive price certainty on outturn cost. Rudi’s piece also ignores the fact that in the current market maximising risk transfer is a pipe-dream. It is the market, not any wish of lawyers, which drives the allocation of risk under current construction contracts.Clients of the industry have not abandoned collaboration and partnering – they do it all the time – though sometimes they do feel a bit let down by their partners.The specific examples cited seem to boil down to a complaint about some rather silly drafting included in a subcontract. Suffice to say that, where the industry’s clients have an opportunity to examine and approve the terms of the subcontract, this is precisely the sort of provision to which they would object on the basis that a focus on drafting provisions to pass on risk tends to mean that risk is not being managed properly. We can probably agree on that. But I think that the industry’s clients’ response would be that the supply chain should get its own house in order and not expect the industry’s clients to do it for them. I think that the industry’s clients’ response would be that the supply chain should get its own house in order and not expect the industry’s clients to do it for themThe subsequent column suggests that poorly written contracts are costing our industry a fortune every year. It then goes on to Rudi’s own bug bears – and they are a rather eclectic bunch:Throwing everything into the contractual “pot”If he is complaining about the fact that main contractors unthinkingly pass on piles of documentation to subcontractors then, in my experience, he is probably right. But the drivers for that sit in the commercial teams in the main contractors, not with lawyers.  Lack of drafting precisionRudi acknowledges that open-ended and loose drafting and the use of terms such as “major” and “pay due regard to” result in disputes and potential unenforceability.  How those play out in terms of risk transfer is therefore equally uncertain. So, no one’s interests are being served. We all make mistakes but this sort of thing is not usually led by a lawyer. As Rudi must acknowledge, preliminaries’ clauses and even amendments to contracts are often drafted by non-lawyers. Maybe more lawyers should get involved?Seeking to write statutory requirementsRudi talks about extending the seven day notice period for suspension under the Construction Act to 42,000 days and suggests he could excuse quantity surveyors doing this but not lawyers. But since it is unenforceable anyway who cares?So the criticisms in these columns are hard to follow. As a lawyer, I am not sure of my crime. The charges should be thrown out for lack of evidence.Ann Minogue is a partner in Macfarlaneslast_img read more

Fesco gets the wheels turning

first_imgThe wheels, manufactured at the Leningradsky Metallichesky Zavod (LVZ) factory by Power Machines measure 8.5 m in diameter and weigh 221.4 tonnes (244 tons).Prior to loading, the quayside at the departure port was reinforced and levelled, while a survey of the water depth was conducted to ensure the vessel could be safely secured. A floating crane and pontoon were used to load the turbine wheels onto a vessel for the voyage via the White Sea Canal, the Northern Sea Route and then along the Yenisei river all the way to the docks of the Krasnoyarsk power station in central Russia.  The expected transit time is 30 days.On arrival at Krasnoyarsk, the units will be offloaded to modular trailers and delivered to the power station.Fesco will also transport 145.2 tonnes (160 tons) of auxiliary equipment overland to the power station.A video of the project can be viewed here. www.fesco.ruwww.power-m.rulast_img read more