Do American adolescents approve of marijuana?

first_imgShare on Facebook Share on Twitter Using survey data collected from the nationally representative National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) conducted between 2002 through 2013, the researchers broke the sample into three subgroups based upon age: younger adolescents (aged 12–14), older adolescents (aged 15–17), and young adults (aged 18–25).  In breaking the sample into subgroups, distinct trends emerged within each category.The findings pertaining to younger (12-14 years) and older (15-17 years) adolescents suggests that adolescents have not become more permissive in their views on marijuana and have progressively decreased their use over the past decade.  The opposite was the case for young adults aged 18-25.  The survey results indicate a decreased amount of young adults who disapprove of marijuana use.  Despite the downward trend of disapproval among young adults, actual marijuana use did not increase.“Study findings point to the importance of examining changes in the perception and use of marijuana with an appreciation for developmental differences,” concluded Dr. Salas-Wright and the team. “Changes are certainly underway in terms of the perception and use of marijuana among American youth.” Pinterest LinkedIncenter_img Share Email Groundbreaking research published in The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse suggests that adolescents have become less likely to approve of and use marijuana over the last decade when compared to young adults. This is coming during a time where a majority of Americans support the full legalization of marijuana, according to a 2013 Gallup poll.The study, Trends in the Disapproval and Use of Marijuana among Adolescents and Young Adults in the United States: 2002–2013, is free to read in the newest issue of the journal online.“With respect to drug use, we are in a unique historical moment – American adults are changing in the way that we think about marijuana and lots of changes in policy are underway in terms of the decriminalization, medicalization, and legalization of marijuana use in cities and states across the country,” explained Dr. Christopher Salas-Wright and his colleagues. “Given this context, we were interested in understanding how such changes might be impacting the way young people are thinking and behaving with regards to marijuana.”last_img read more

For geeks everywhere – law tech ‘disrupters’ gather at landmark London event

first_imgA new co-working space for legal tech innovators was launched today at the Legal Geek conference in London’s Shoreditch.The sold-out event, sponsored by the Law Society, brought together ‘disruptive forces’ – the tech start-ups that are transforming legal services – and supporters, investors and early adopters. The artificial intelligence, blockchain and lawtech-curious were also there in force.The conference heard that start-up communities like Legal Geek are the ‘true catalysts’ that are maintaining the momentum toward what the event heard is a ‘tipping point’ in the adoption of disruptive technology.Jimmy Vestbirk, Legal Geek founder, reiterated Legal Geek’s vision to make London a global hub for lawtech start-ups.He announced the establishment of the Legal Geek incubator, a working space for legal innovators with free registration for a launch in the new year. ‘It’s about giving a home to the Legal Geek family – our meetings, events and our innovators,’ he said.The morning sessions covered legal Legal AI and the global law tech start-up community.Nick West from Mishcon de Reya talked about some of the challenges of AI adoption. ‘A culture of experimentation is not in the law firm DNA,’ he said. ‘But this needs to change and it is changing. Because culture eats strategy for breakfast.’Anna Ronkainen, founder of AI start-up Trademark Now and a university lecturer in legal technology, discussed the background of legal AI and gave a demonstration of how it works at Trademark Now. AI is not a end in itself, she explained; it speeds up by taking the ‘heavy cognitive lifting’ out of complex processes.The AI practice theme continued with Leverton, Kira Systems and RAVN explaining how their sophisticated narrow AI offerings take the ‘heavy cognitive lifting’ out of transactional due diligence, making legal services better, faster and cheaper.But AI will not replace lawyers, the event heard. In fact, Noah Waisberg of Kira Systems believes that making legal services more accessible and affordable is likely to create more legal work, for more lawyers.The event also featured a tour of the global lawtech community.This is a global movement for change featuring David Curle from Thomson Reuters (US), Frederic Pelouze from WeClaim (France), Aron Solomon and Jason Moyse from Law Made (Canada), Jeroen Zweers from Kennedy Van Der Laan in Amsterdam who runs the Dutch LegalTech Startup Award and Meetup, and David Busby from Lexoo & Law Hackers (Australia).The message was clear. ‘AI is unbundling legal services,’ said Pelouze, while Solomon referred to the interplay between “the digital Davids and the enterprise Goliaths’, adding: ‘It’s not a conflict, it’s a dance!’According to Pelouze, the biggest challenge for lawtech start-ups, in addition to the usual tech start-up issues, is ’you have to be careful because you’re dealing with lawyers!’ Solomon added an encouraging surfing analogy: ‘If you get on the wave at the right time, you can ride it for a long time.’David Curle from Thomson Reuters highlighted the continuity between this and other lawtech start-up events. ‘2013 saw a few watershed events that set the tone – Stanford’s Codex and the Reinvent Law series of events – and now it is a global horizontal phenomenon,’ he said. Advances in cloud computing have made tech fun, lightweight and quick to implement – an ideal climate for innovation, he added.Law Society director of innovation Pete Nussey observed that the big turnout was ‘symptomatic of the unstoppable change in the industry’, but wondered how many law firm representatives were from firms below the top 50.‘The start-ups are driving the change, but the early adopters are dominated by the elite,’ he said. ‘None the less, it feels like we’re reaching a tipping point, and even the detractors are starting to recognise that change is unstoppable.’The conference was preceded by a Law for Good hackathon, where computer programmers worked together over the weekend to create software prototypes aimed at improving access to justice.Nussey added: ‘As part of our mission to support the solicitor profession, the Society has an important role to play in promoting legal innovation and helping our members access the latest developments in legal services technology.’last_img read more

Track monitoring on the TGV network

first_imgINTRO: To maintain high standards of ride on high speed lines with growing traffic, it is essential to improve monitoring of track components. SNCF has put in hand development of more powerful monitoring equipment, including a video rail surface inspection system in service since the start of this year. The case for a dedicated TGV infrastructure inspection train is stronger as further high speed routes near completionBYLINE: André Le BihanHead of Maintenance Policy, Infrastructure Division, SNCFIN the course of almost 20 years of commercial TGV operation at speeds up to 300 km/h, SNCF engineers have developed a comprehensive system for monitoring track condition on high speed lines and planning scheduled maintenance. A computer-based decision-support system is the main planning tool, supplied with a wide range of recording data gathered during periodic inspections and special visits.The general principles of track monitoring and maintenance are the same for conventional and high speed lines, with the engineer striving to maintain the required standards of track geometry at the lowest possible cost. However, the higher dynamic forces experienced on high speed lines tend to accelerate the rate at which defects worsen. To maintain high safety and passenger comfort standards, SNCF has therefore developed a more intensive inspection programme for high speed routes (Table I).Track geometry on high speed lines is monitored using Mauzin recording cars operating at speeds up to 200 km/h, which provide numerical and graphical data for the detection and short-term correction of short wave defects. These cars are also equipped to produce charts with an extended baseline so that long-wave defects can be analysed. It is vital that such defects are mastered if standards of ride quality are to be maintained at high speeds.Work to correct and maintain track geometry is planned on a long-term basis using data provided by the recording cars. Longitudinal level, transverse level and alignment are calculated on board and fed into the database for the route in question. Further processing enables tamping operations to be planned to optimum effect.Every two weeks, high speed lines are inspected for isolated defects by the test car Mélusine, which is marshalled in a service train and operates at line speed. Accelerometers installed in the car measure horizontal and vertical acceleration at bogie and car body level, and a recently-developed processing system provides automatic analysis of peak values with their location. Isolated defects are then corrected, mainly using multi-purpose tampers allocated to light maintenance work.The ultimate development of the Mélusine concept would be a dedicated high-speed infrastructure inspection train, which as well as track geometry and ride quality would monitor the signalling and overhead electrification systems. As the French high speed network grows and traffic levels rise, the economic case for such a train becomes even stronger, and SNCF has decided to study a project to have such a train in service by 2005.InspectionVisual inspection of track components is undertaken every 10 weeks during a maintenance window, as it can be hard to verify the condition of components from the lineside or just using train-borne video equipment. Until now, TGV routes have been closed to traffic for around 90min during daylight hours to allow inspection work to take place, but commercial pressures mean that this traditional maintenance window is getting shorter.To inspect plain line at night, we have been considering the introduction of specialised vehicles equipped with powerful spot lights. Although automatic monitoring systems are being installed on the high speed route between Paris and Marseille, sensitive and complex components such as the moving noses of switches and crossings will still require visual inspection in daylight, particularly if cracking is to be detected and monitored. The minimum time to allow for this task would appear to be 60min.Most track maintenance work on a modern high speed line is generated by the interaction of wheel on rail, which has important consequences for rail life, track geometry and rolling noise. On the busiest sections of the high speed network, rail is inspected every six months using an ultrasonic testing car. Internal fatigue defects are rare due to the high quality of the rail steel employed and of the welds, as well as the maximum static axleload of 17 tonnes in force on the new lines. At a maximum speed of 70 km/h, the use of ultrasonic cars can hinder other maintenance work, and further acceleration of this inspection process would be welcome.Although rail corrugation has never been observed on the French high speed network, probably due to the high rolling stability of TGV bogies and good elastic behaviour on the part of the track, surface defects resulting from rolling contact fatigue are a cause for concern. They are very difficult to detect by ultrasound and can cause multiple rail breaks (RG 12.00 p810). Having first appeared as squats on straight track, these defects are now giving rise to head checks on the running edge of the upper rail in large radius curves, including junctions and crossovers on high speed lines. A special programme of inspections must be followed to monitor the development of these defects, and new methods of preventative maintenance based on special grinding profiles are currently under development.High speed videoThe running surface geometry of the rail may be damaged locally by other phenomena, such as the crushing of ballast particles by ice falling from trains in winter. Since January 2001, a rail surface inspection system known as Ivoire has been in service at speeds up to 300 km/h, installed underneath the test car Mélusine. High speed routes will be inspected on a regular basis every three months, but additional inspections may take place if required.Ivoire comprises a digital camera mounted above each rail, capable of processing up to 20million pixels each second. Defects as small as 1mm are clearly visible at 300 km/h, and there is sufficient memory for 2h 30min of continuous recording. Data captured during recording runs is processed by a separate facility, and is presented in two formats. The number of defects per km can be presented in graphical form, with each defect classified into one of four categories depending on its magnitude. For each defect falling into Category 4, the most serious, a separate file is produced containing an image of the fault an its exact location. This enables the most appropriate course of action to be taken.Mélusine is now also capable of measuring rolling noise in the 1000 to 5000Hz spectrum, by means of microphones mounted under the bogies. Rail defects have their particular noise signature, with the frequency of the sound inversely proportional to the wavelength of the fault that generated it. Correlated with very precise measurement of the rail head, these measurements enable a map of rolling noise to be produced, which will be developed to guide grinding operations.Since the opening of the first section of the Paris – Lyon route in 1981, a track geometry database has been maintained for high speed lines, expanding with the development of the TGV network. In addition, specialised software has been developed to manage maintenance tasks, such as Timon for tamping and grinding, or Defrail for rail maintenance. The track monitoring system for TGV routes is not in itself revolutionary, but through collating considerable amounts of physical data and improving methods and tools continually, we have been able to provide high track quality at low cost. nIN the course of almost 20 years of commercial TGV operation at speeds up to 300 km/h, SNCF engineers have developed a comprehensive system for monitoring track condition on high speed lines and planning scheduled maintenance. A computer-based decision-support system is the main planning tool, supplied with a wide range of recording data gathered during periodic inspections and special visits.The general principles of track monitoring and maintenance are the same for conventional and high speed lines, with the engineer striving to maintain the required standards of track geometry at the lowest possible cost. However, the higher dynamic forces experienced on high speed lines tend to accelerate the rate at which defects worsen. To maintain high safety and passenger comfort standards, SNCF has therefore developed a more intensive inspection programme for high speed routes (Table I).Track geometry on high speed lines is monitored using Mauzin recording cars operating at speeds up to 200 km/h, which provide numerical and graphical data for the detection and short-term correction of short wave defects. These cars are also equipped to produce charts with an extended baseline so that long-wave defects can be analysed. It is vital that such defects are mastered if standards of ride quality are to be maintained at high speeds.Work to correct and maintain track geometry is planned on a long-term basis using data provided by the recording cars. Longitudinal level, transverse level and alignment are calculated on board and fed into the database for the route in question. Further processing enables tamping operations to be planned to optimum effect.Every two weeks, high speed lines are inspected for isolated defects by the test car Mélusine, which is marshalled in a service train and operates at line speed. Accelerometers installed in the car measure horizontal and vertical acceleration at bogie and car body level, and a recently-developed processing system provides automatic analysis of peak values with their location. Isolated defects are then corrected, mainly using multi-purpose tampers allocated to light maintenance work.The ultimate development of the Mélusine concept would be a dedicated high-speed infrastructure inspection train, which as well as track geometry and ride quality would monitor the signalling and overhead electrification systems. As the French high speed network grows and traffic levels rise, the economic case for such a train becomes even stronger, and SNCF has decided to study a project to have such a train in service by 2005.InspectionVisual inspection of track components is undertaken every 10 weeks during a maintenance window, as it can be hard to verify the condition of components from the lineside or just using train-borne video equipment. Until now, TGV routes have been closed to traffic for around 90min during daylight hours to allow inspection work to take place, but commercial pressures mean that this traditional maintenance window is getting shorter.To inspect plain line at night, we have been considering the introduction of specialised vehicles equipped with powerful spot lights. Although automatic monitoring systems are being installed on the high speed route between Paris and Marseille, sensitive and complex components such as the moving noses of switches and crossings will still require visual inspection in daylight, particularly if cracking is to be detected and monitored. The minimum time to allow for this task would appear to be 60min.Most track maintenance work on a modern high speed line is generated by the interaction of wheel on rail, which has important consequences for rail life, track geometry and rolling noise. On the busiest sections of the high speed network, rail is inspected every six months using an ultrasonic testing car. Internal fatigue defects are rare due to the high quality of the rail steel employed and of the welds, as well as the maximum static axleload of 17 tonnes in force on the new lines. At a maximum speed of 70 km/h, the use of ultrasonic cars can hinder other maintenance work, and further acceleration of this inspection process would be welcome.Although rail corrugation has never been observed on the French high speed network, probably due to the high rolling stability of TGV bogies and good elastic behaviour on the part of the track, surface defects resulting from rolling contact fatigue are a cause for concern. They are very difficult to detect by ultrasound and can cause multiple rail breaks (RG 12.00 p810). Having first appeared as squats on straight track, these defects are now giving rise to head checks on the running edge of the upper rail in large radius curves, including junctions and crossovers on high speed lines. A special programme of inspections must be followed to monitor the development of these defects, and new methods of preventative maintenance based on special grinding profiles are currently under development.High speed videoThe running surface geometry of the rail may be damaged locally by other phenomena, such as the crushing of ballast particles by ice falling from trains in winter. Since January 2001, a rail surface inspection system known as Ivoire has been in service at speeds up to 300 km/h, installed underneath the test car Mélusine. High speed routes will be inspected on a regular basis every three months, but additional inspections may take place if required.Ivoire comprises a digital camera mounted above each rail, capable of processing up to 20million pixels each second. Defects as small as 1mm are clearly visible at 300 km/h, and there is sufficient memory for 2h 30min of continuous recording. Data captured during recording runs is processed by a separate facility, and is presented in two formats. The number of defects per km can be presented in graphical form, with each defect classified into one of four categories depending on its magnitude. For each defect falling into Category 4, the most serious, a separate file is produced containing an image of the fault an its exact location. This enables the most appropriate course of action to be taken.Mélusine is now also capable of measuring rolling noise in the 1000 to 5000Hz spectrum, by means of microphones mounted under the bogies. Rail defects have their particular noise signature, with the frequency of the sound inversely proportional to the wavelength of the fault that generated it. Correlated with very precise measurement of the rail head, these measurements enable a map of rolling noise to be produced, which will be developed to guide grinding operations.Since the opening of the first section of the Paris – Lyon route in 1981, a track geometry database has been maintained for high speed lines, expanding with the development of the TGV network. In addition, specialised software has been developed to manage maintenance tasks, such as Timon for tamping and grinding, or Defrail for rail maintenance. The track monitoring system for TGV routes is not in itself revolutionary, but through collating considerable amounts of physical data and improving methods and tools continually, we have been able to provide high track quality at low cost. nTable I. Frequency of track inspectionTABLE: Type Conventional routes, High speed lines, max speed 160 to 220 km/h max speed 300 km/hOn-foot inspection 2 weeks Plain line 1 10 weeksby gang foreman Switches & crossings 5 weeks Formation/structures 2 5 weeksGeneral inspection by district managerOn foot 2 months 1 monthFrom train cab 2 weeks 2 weeksSpecial inspection Daily on line opening, at 160 km/hTrack recording car 6 months 3 months 3Accelerometer recordings 6 months 4 2 weeks 5Ultrasonic rail inspection 12 months 6 months1. Undertaken during daylight maintenance windows, or at night on foot or from inspection trolleys2. Inspection of fencing, ditches, earthworks and other structures undertaken in daylight from outside the right of way3. Using an extended baseline to analyse long wave defects4. Using a portable device5. Using test car MélusineCAPTION: Top: Monitoring heads for the Ivoire equipment are mounted in protective cases below the Mélusine recording carCAPTION: Still photograph of a rail surface defect (left) and an image from the Ivoire video system taken at 300 km/h CAPTION: Fig 1. Analysis of track faults by category as recorded by Ivoire during a run on TGV Nord in December 2000Track monitoring on the TGV networkTo ensure high standards of ride and comfort on high speed lines with growing traffic, French National Railways is improving its monitoring and track measurement techniques. These include a video rail surface inspection system able to operate at up to 300 km/h that has been in use since January. Plans are now advancing for a dedicated high speed inspection train that would enter service in 2005Surveillance continue de la voie sur le réseau TGVAfin de s’assurer d’un haut niveau de roulement et de confort sur les lignes à grande vitesse dont le trafic s’accroît, la SNCF améliore ses techniques de surveillance et de mesure de la voie. Parmi elles, on note un système vidéo d’inspection de la surface des rails pouvant fonctionner jusqu’à 300 km/h, employé depuis janvier. Les projets avancent désormais vers la création d’une rame d’inspection spécialisée, à grande vitesse, qui entrerait en service en 2005Gleisüberwachung auf dem TGV-NetzZur Sicherstellung eines guten Fahrverhaltens und des Komforts auf den Hochgeschwindigkeitsstrecken bei zunehmenden Verkehr verbessert die SNCF Überwachungs- und Gleismessverfahren. Dies umfasst unter Anderem ein Video-Schienen-Prüfsystem, welches mit Geschwindigkeiten bis zu 300 km/h eingesetzt werden kann, und sich seit Januar im Einsatz befindet. Es bestehen Pläne, einen Hochgeschwindigkeitsmesszug zu bauen, welcher 2005 in Betrieb kommen klast_img read more

Noteboom repeats as Modified winner at Algona

first_imgBy Greg GrabianowskiALGONA, Iowa (May 17) – Jay Noteboom repeated as the IMCA Modified winner Thursday at Kossuth County Speedway.Noteboom started on the inside of row number four before moving to the front of the field to pick up his second win of the season at Algona and his fourth overall this spring.Kelly Shryock took second followed by Ethan Dotson, Austin Wolf and Cody Knecht. Dotson moved up seven positions during the final race of the evening as the hard charger.John Wiemann started on the outside pole and led almost the whole way only to see Heath Tulp edge him by a bumper at the flag stand to take the victory in the IMCA Sunoco Stock Car feature.The Karl Chevrolet Northern SportMod feature saw Colby Fett pick up his first local victory of the season as he came from the outside of the second row to earn the win.Micah Lavrenz and Doug Wickman led 17 cars to flag stand to take the green flag for the IMCA Sunoco Hobby Stock feature, but once the flag dropped, Wickman dominated the field to earn the win as the race went green white checkered.A good group of 17 Mach-1 Sport Compacts took a look at the Kossuth County oval in preparation for the Bumble Bee Nationals later this season with Jay DeVries coming from inside row five.last_img read more

First look: Olivia Pope meets Annalise Keating in the Scandal and HTGAWM crossover eve

first_imgScandal airs Thursdays at 9 p.m. ET on ABC, followed by HTGAWM at 10 p.m. ET.Powered by WPeMatico Related ABC/Eric McCandlessOlivia Pope and Annalise Keating will officially cross paths on March 1. Washington adds, “ I really love Viola. I have such immense respect and admiration for her.“ In the first look photo from the upcoming Scandal and How to Get Away With Murder crossover event, obtained by Entertainment Weekly, Kerry Washington’s Olivia Pope and Viola Davis’ Annalise Keating are seen walking into a conference room together, both with no-nonsense looks on their faces.While the exact storyline hasn’t been announced, it’s rumored to have something to do with Annalise’s class action lawsuit against the state of Pennsylvania. Davis tells EW, “It was black girl magic on steroids! Me and Kerry dancing to ‘Rock the Boat’? Hey, it can’t get any better.“ last_img read more