Article published by Mike Gaworecki Adaptation To Climate Change, Climate Change, Coastal Ecosystems, Environment, Global Warming, Impact Of Climate Change, Marine Ecosystems, Ocean Crisis, Ocean Warming, Oceans, Oceans And Climate Change, Research According to research published in the journal Nature Communications this month, the energy of ocean waves has grown over the past seven decades, which could have significant implications for coastal communities and ecosystems.The energy in ocean waves is transmitted from the wind. As the upper ocean has warmed, wind patterns have been affected globally, resulting in stronger ocean waves. The researchers behind the Nature Communications study say they found a long-term trend of wave power increasing globally in direct association with historical warming of the ocean surface.The researchers say their results show that global wave power could be used as an indicator of global warming similar to how atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration levels, global sea level rise, or global surface atmospheric temperatures are used now. Global climate change is impacting Earth’s oceans in a number of ways, from higher water temperatures and rising sea levels to acidification and oxygen depletion.Now, scientists have reported another change to oceans wrought by global warming: According to research published in the journal Nature Communications this month, the energy of ocean waves has grown over the past seven decades, which could have significant implications for coastal communities and ecosystems.The energy in ocean waves is transmitted from the wind. As the upper ocean has warmed, wind patterns have been affected globally, resulting in stronger ocean waves. The researchers behind the Nature Communications study say they found a long-term trend of wave power increasing globally in direct association with historical warming of the ocean surface.“For the first time, we have identified a global signal of the effect of global warming in wave climate,” Borja G. Reguero, a researcher in the Institute of Marine Sciences at the University of California, Santa Cruz in the United States and the study’s lead author, said in a statement. “In fact, wave power has increased globally by 0.4 percent per year since 1948, and this increase is correlated with the increasing sea-surface temperatures, both globally and by ocean regions.”Previous analyses of the global wave climate, or how wave characteristics change over time, have tended to focus on historical trends in mean and extreme values for parameters such as wave height, Reguero and co-authors note. Wave heights have increased in recent decades, especially at higher latitudes in both hemispheres.“Satellite-based altimeter measurements from 1985 to 2008 reveal increases of 0.25% per year for the 90th wave height percentile and 0.50% per year for the 99th percentile, in both hemispheres,” the researchers write in the study. “[D]ata also show significant increases in extreme wave heights at the high latitudes of the southern hemisphere, 0.25–0.9% per year for the 90th percentile in the north Atlantic and the north Pacific, and decreases in the mid-latitudes.” In addition to changes in wave heights, wave periods have also increased, and the direction of waves has shifted in some cases, such as in the southern ocean and in the north Atlantic.Changes in global wave energy have received less attention, the researchers say, “particularly in the context of climate change.” They add that wave power has not been studied as a climate change indicator yet, but they found that “it can potentially characterize the long-term behavior of the global wave conditions better than wave heights.”Study co-author Inigo J. Losada, director of research at the Environmental Hydraulics Institute at Spain’s University of Cantabria, said that the study results show that global wave power could be used as an indicator of global warming similar to how atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration levels, global sea level rise, or global surface atmospheric temperatures are used now.Understanding how global wave power responds to oceanic warming also has important implications for adapting coastlines to the impacts of climate change on infrastructure, coastal cities, and small islands. Wave power is a “key driver of coastal change and flooding,” the authors of the study write, and as wave energy increases, the effects will become more profound.For instance, as sea levels rise, more wave energy will reach shore, exacerbating impacts to shorelines. But regional differences in upper-ocean warming will mean that wave power changes are different in each ocean basin. This variability in wave energy across regions and at different times of the year are most apparent in the heightened flooding and erosion risks to Pacific coastlines during El Niño events, “which are explained by our [wave power] patterns,” according to the authors. “Regionally, changes in the extratropical generation areas of the Southern Ocean and North Pacific, where the [wave power] is more severe, should receive special attention.“Our results indicate that risk analysis neglecting the changes in wave power and having sea level rise as the only driver may underestimate the consequences of climate change and result in insufficient or maladaptation,” co-author Fernando J. Méndez, associate professor at Universidad de Cantabria, said in a statement.CITATION• Borja G. Reguero, Iñigo J. Losada, & Fernando J. Méndez. (2019). A recent increase in global wave power as a consequence of oceanic warming. Nature Communications 10. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-08066-0Featured Image: Photo by Michael Goyberg. Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsored
This is a post from a member of the Freelancers Union community. If you’re interested in sharing your expertise, your story, or some advice you think will help a fellow freelancer out, feel free to send your blog post to us here.So you think you want to crowdfund your artistic project. It’ll be easy. After all, didn’t some guy raise over $50,000 making potato salad? Sure, but let’s talk some facts first.More than half — 59 percent — of all Kickstarter projects don’t meet their fundraising goal.These projects were all probably started by well-meaning artists who fell prey to the siren call of crowdfunding: if I just put my project on Kickstarter, people will throw money at me.Wrong. My writing partner and I just closed a successful Kickstarter campaign, raising over $6,000 to fund the production of our military thriller, Weapons of Mass Deception, and we learned a few lesson along the way.If you’re seriously thinking about starting a crowdfunding campaign, take the time to answer these six questions first.1. Who is my crowd?The most common misunderstanding about crowdfunding is how it works. The website you work with (Kickstarter, Indiegogo, Go Fund Me, etc.) provides the funding platform.YOU need to provide the crowd. In our Kickstarter campaign, 96% of the funding came from external referrers, only 4% came from the Kickstarter site. In other words, we had to direct the crowd to our Kickstarter page.Start by making a contact list of everyone you know. Think broadly here: work colleagues, college roommates, elementary school teachers, relatives, friends. Everyone.2. What is my story?Let’s say you’ve written a book. You probably have a rocking cover and a terrific book description, but here’s the thing. Giving money is a personal act, people want to be persuaded.Who are you? Why did you write the book? What do you have to say that hasn’t been said before? When my writing partner and I started our Kickstarter campaign for our military thriller Weapons of Mass Deception, we focused on our Navy backgrounds as a way to stand out among all the other publishing projects.Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery. Browse successful projects that are similar to yours and see what other artists have done.3. What am I going to give my backers?Once you’ve persuaded a backer, the next question that person asks is: what do I get for my money? Yes, we humans are complex creatures, giving freely with one hand and expecting a gift with the other.My advice here is twofold. Make it directly related to your project and make it a Kickstarter exclusive item. For our project, we offered three editions of our novel, e-book, paperback and a limited-edition, Kickstarter exclusive hardback volume. Guess which one was the most popular?4. How much does it cost?The point of crowdfunding is the money you get to keep, after you pay for all those gifts. Do your homework on all the costs.For example, if you plan to offer a signed paperback as a reward, you will pay for (1) cost of the book, (2) cost to ship the book to you, (3) cost for you to ship it to the lucky backer, who just might live in Finland. And don’t forget the fact that the crowdfunding site claims a transaction fee off the top.If you don’t know how to use a spreadsheet, find a friend who does and build a model so you can estimate how much money you get to keep from your crowdfunding effort.5. How much money can I raise?Using your cost model and your contact list, estimate how many people you think might back you and at what level. This is not an exact science. In fact, you will be surprised by who does and does not back your campaign. Uncle Al who you haven’t spoken to in twenty years contributes $100, while your best friend never shows up.Play with adjusting the reward levels to see how that affects your net profit from the campaign. Compare that amount with the answer to the next question.Join the nation’s largest group representing the new workforce (it’s free!)Become a member6. How much money do I need to raise?Crowdfunding site policies vary, but most only let you keep the money if you meet your funding goal. (Indiegogo has a partial funding option, but it comes with a higher fee.)Bottom line is you should be asking for the minimum amount needed to make your project happen. In our case, we set our Kickstarter goal at $4000, even though that would net us less than we needed.We hoped we would overfund (we did) and if not, we were willing to pay for the rest out of pocket. Choose carefully, once you set your funding goal and campaign duration, they cannot be changed.7. Am I willing to ask my crowd for support?And now we come to the single most important question of all. Are you willing to contact every person on your list and ask for their help? Maybe some of the people on your contact list aren’t in a financial position to contribute, but they can still help spread the word.If the thought of asking people you know for their support makes you sick to your stomach, you may want to rethink the idea of crowdfunding.Fear Not, Brave CrowdfunderBut there’s still hope. This is where crowdfunding platforms work in your favor. All the work I mentioned above–telling your story via video and words, researching costs, deciding on gifts and reward levels—happens before you launch your campaign.Once your campaign is launched, your sole job is to get people to show up to your page, listen to your story, and tell all of their friends.There you have it. If you can answer these six questions before you launch your campaign you will be well on your way to crowdfunding success.David Bruns (www.davidbruns.com) is an independent author and recovering corporate executive. He is the creator of the sci-fi series The Dream Guild Chronicles, and one half of the writing team for the military thriller, Weapons of Mass Deception, about modern-day nuclear terrorism.
Virat Kohli scores an ODI hundred every sixth match. So when he smashed a classic 160 not out against South Africa to script India’s 124-run victory in the third ODI in Cape Town, you would have wondered what was really so new about it?Another Kohli hundred, another ODI win for India. Par for course, is it not? What else is there to say for a man who scores hundreds for fun?Well, there is plenty.Apart from a plethora of records Kohli broke on Wednesday, he played out his longest ODI innings and ran 100 runs of 160 runs. What was really impressive about the knock was that Kohli did not look at his fluent best when he walked out to bat after Rohit Sharma fell to Kagiso Rabada in the first over.Kohli, who came to Cape Town on the back of a majestic 112 and a polished 46*, was happy to take the backseat as Shikhar Dhawan tore into the attack. However, the Indian captain started taking toll shortly after and ensured his team was always in the hunt for a big total even as Dhawan, Ajinkya Rahane, Hardik Pandya, MS Dhoni and Kedar Jadhav perished in short time.Moreover, Kohli later admitted he had to battle cramps when he was in his 90s. It was a hot day in Cape Town and running could not have been easy.But Kohli, who hits 4.21 boundaries on an average in every ODI, ran as many as 75 singles, 11 doubles and one three. He hit 12 boundaries and two sixes.advertisementIt was also Kohli’s longest innings, 159 balls. Nearly six years ago, he had faced 148 balls to score a scintillating 183 against Pakistan at the Asia Cup.Nearly 30 now, it was that much harder for Kohli to push himself but the innings was an ode to his fitness. A strong advocate of fitness, Kohli has insisted training hard has made all the difference.”I will be 30 this year. The decision was in terms of extending the quality of cricket you want to play at an older age as well. That is my intention. I want to play this kind of cricket even when I am 34-35,” Kohli said at the post-match press conference.”That’s why I train so much. I am the guy who likes to play with intensity and once that is gone I don’t know what I am going to do. I try to protect that and I try to train as much as I can, keep a check on my diet. Those things pay off on days like these when team needs it. You stand up and pull through as I said amazing things happen when you are thinking of the team throughout. As an athlete you crave for days like these. These are the kind of days that give you satisfaction as a batsman and as a Team India player. I am really happy to contribute to the mood that is in the dressing-room right now,” he said.Kohli was among the busiest cricketers last year but he did not let the burden of international pressure and the hectic schedule bog him down. He finished 2017 with 2818 international runs, 11 hundreds including three double hundreds in Test cricket. (India’s ODI wins in South Africa prove we can travel well: Tendulkar)He of course later said even he could be tired and needed a break but that was to be expected.However, Kohli, after a short break during which he got married, returned to the international fold and resumed business as usual. After a couple of low scores in the first Test against South Africa in Cape Town, he roared back with a superb 153 in Centurion and two gutsy knocks on a difficult Wanderers pitch – he was by far the best batsman in the Test series and finished as the highest run-scorer.In the ODIs, Kohli is once again miles ahead of the rest with 318 runs – he was the top scorer in ODIs last year with 1460 runs and could well finish 2018 on top. Given his dedication to fitness and training and a strict diet, it would need a very brave observer to rule that out.